Biol 3350L Lab 1

Pages refer to: Wischnitzer, S. 1993. Atlas and Dissection Guide for Comparative Anatomy, 5th Ed. W.H. Freeman & Co.. You need to "know" (i.e., be able to identify on sight and provide a function for) all structures listed. You are also responsible to know homologies across taxa.

1) Pp. xvi - xvii:

  1. A) You are responsible for ALL anatomical terms listed (see also "Symmetry" on page 16 of your text book and learn all the planes/sections). You'll need to know these all semester.

2) Pp. 3 - 15:

  1. A) Phylum Hemichordata: Hemichordates (Blanoglossus; Dolichoglossus):

External anatomy (whole mount) - know: proboscis, collar, trunk, anus

Internal anatomy (slide)- know :proboscis, internal gill slit

  1. B) Subphylum Urochordata:
  2. A) Know all chordate characters and their functions as described in this and all other chapters (as appropriate). The specific structures you must be able to identify are: Notochord; Pharyngeal Slits; Pharynx, Dorsal Hollow (Tubular) Nerve Cord; Postanal Tail, Myomeres.
  3. i) Tunicate Larvae Slide (aka: Ascidian tadpole) - be able to identify: notochord, adhesive papillae, tail
  4. ii) Adult Tunicate (e.g., Corella, Molgula) - know: tunic, base, pharynx,

3) Subphylum Cephalochordata: Branchiostoma (aka Amphioxus).

  1. i) External Anatomy - be able to identify: oral hood, buccal cirri, dorsal fin, caudal fin, myomeres.
  2. ii) Internal morphology (whole mount and/or cross sections) - be able to identify: dorsal hollow nerve cord; notochord; Wheel organ; pharyngeal slits, endostyle, midgut caecum hindgut; anus; atriopore, gonads, dorsal fin; myomeres, metaplural folds.

4) Pp. 19 - 27

  1. a) Look at examples of hagfish and "ostracoderms" and conodonts in the back of the lab.
  2. b) Adult Lamprey

Skeleton: Branchial basket, annular cartilage, precardial cartilage, notochord, caudal fin.

External Anatomy: Know the following structures: Head, buccal funnel, teeth, tongue, buccal cavity, eyes, nostril, pineal gland, external gill slits (pores), urogenital papilla, trunk, dorsal fins, caudal fin.

Sagittal and Cross SectionsKnow the followingbuccal cavity, pharynx, branchial tube, internal gill slits, gill lamellae, external gill slits, esophagus, intestine, gonads (testis and ovaries), liver, heart, dorsal aorta, ventral aorta, anterior cardinal vein, posterior cardinal vein, myomeres, myosepta, lingual cartilages, notochord, cranial cartilages, kidney, dorsal hollow nerve cord (spinal cord) brain, pineal gland, fin rays

I suggest that you work in pairs. One of you should cut your specimen into saggital sections, the other into cross (transverse) sections. .

  1. c) Larval Lamprey (Ammocoete):

Whole Mount and Cross Sections (slides): Pharynx, oral hood, oral tentacles, dorsal and caudal fin folds, myotomes; spinal cord, notochord, intestine, external gill slits, gill lamellae; pharynx, brain (don't worry about divisions); eyespot; dorsal aorta, kidney, heart.

  1. d) How does the Ammocoete anatomy compare with what you saw in Amphioxus? Which structures are homologous? How do you know??