Ph.D. in Criminology and Criminal Justice. Old Dominion University, May 2016.
Doctoral Dissertation: Governing the “Alien Threat”: A Multilevel Analysis of Punitiveness toward Non-citizen Federal Drug Offenders Across Time and Place.
Committee: Randy Gainey (chair), Scott R. Maggard, Jeffery T. Ulmer

M.S. in Criminal Justice. The University of Alabama, May 2010.
Master's Thesis: Gender and Sentencing Outcomes: Does region matter?
Committee: Ariane Prohaska (chair), Jimmy Williams, Britney Cooper

B.A. in Criminal Justice and Psychology (Double Major). The University of Alabama, May 2008.